JavaScript Fatigue

An old developer’s take on JavaScript fatigue:

Old guy yells at young whippersnappers: Get your JavaScript fatigue off my lawn or I’ll whoop your ASCII!

Read the article.

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CSS Flexbox Grids for Your Apps

ChocolateChip-UI provides a convenient grid system based on CSS flexbox. This means your grid columns use flex to determine their widths. This gives you responsive layouts. Because the grids use flexbox, there are no floats involved, and no need to clear floats, etc. Also all columns are automatically equal height in the same grid.

To make a grid, just put the class grid on a div:

// Define a grid:
<div class='grid'></div>

This gives you a grid row. Inside this you can create grid columns with the class col.

// Define a grid with 3 columns:
<div class='grid'>
   <div class='col'>1</div>
   <div class='col'>2</div>
   <div class='col'>3</div>
</div>

By default all columns have a flex value of 1, so they will all have the same width. You can give columns a specific flex value using specific classes that ChocolateChip-UI uses. These are as follows:

<div class='flex-1'></div>
<div class='flex-2'></div>
<div class='flex-3'></div>
<div class='flex-4'></div>
<div class='flex-5'></div>
<div class='flex-6'></div>
<div class='flex-7'></div>
<div class='flex-8'></div>
<div class='flex-9'></div>
<div class='flex-10'></div>

 

Live Example using “flex-1”

By giving columns various flex values you can create complex layouts for you app

 

Columns Based on Total Flex Value of 10

 

Equal Height Columns

As we mentioned, columns in the same grid row are always equal height.

 

Column Gutters

You can give your grid, both rows and columns, some preset gutters. To do so you can put one of two classes on the grid row: gutter-5 or gutter-10.

 

If you want some other gutter value, you can create your own class. Below is a possible class you could use:

.gutter-15 {
   margin: 15px;
}

Then you can use your class on your grids like with our own gutter classes.

Centered Grids

You can center the columns to the grid row, creating space around them, using the center class:

 

Fixed Width Columns

By their nature, flex columns are dynamic. They flex to fill whatever space is available on screen. This is great for mobile devices, such as when the user changes the orientation of a mobile device from portrait to landscape. You can rest assure that you layout will work equally well in all situations. However, sometimes you may need to give a particular column a fixed width. You can do this by giving it a special class. On this class you will define the width you want, and you will also set its flex value to 0:

.fixedWidth {
  -webkit-flex: none;
  flex: none;
  width: 250px;
}

Putting the above class on a column will force it to always have a width of 250 pixels. Any other columns in its grid row will use whatever space is left after that column is rendered. Below is an example of fixed columns:

 

Learning About Layout in ChocolateChip-UI

To learn more about layouts in ChocolateChip-UI, visit the following links:

ChocolateChip-UI 4

So, after a lot of thought, we decided to push a lot of the features of TruckJS to ChocolateChip-UI. Why? Because of the brand. So many people were already using ChocolateChip-UI and it’s been out for four years.

To learn more about the new version, visit the website at ChocolateChip-UI.Github.io

At the same time, we didn’t want to make the move from 3 to 4 too drastic for people used to the earlier version of ChocolateChip-UI. So we went back and simplified some of the things we were doing in TruckJS. The result is ChocolateChip-UI 4. All the layouts and widgets you need to make a mobile app quick. But we moved the heavy lift out of the ChocolateChip-UI Github repository and instead completely redid our NPM module Chui. Chui is now at version 2. It now is the main way you create your ChocolateChip-UI apps. It also lets you output all the ChocolateChip-UI examples to your desktop, as well as four references apps that show you how to create apps with plain JavaScript or with ES6 modules and a build step. It can also turn your app into a hybrid app to iOS and Android. It’s your one tool for everything you need to build your app.

You install Chui with the following NPM command:

 npm install -g chui

To learn more about Chui, visit the NPM page or read the install instructions at ChocolateChip-UI.Github.io.

From ChocolateChip-UI to TruckJS

It all started with a simple DOM library for mobile use. I named it ChocolateChip, because I liked chocolate a lot and because if was really small.

On this blog, one post after another, I created prototypes of how to replicate iOS with markup, CSS and some JavaScript. After many posts I had the makings of a framework. These were all random, so I needed to bundle it all together. ChocolateChip was the glue, so I named the framework ChocolateChip-UI. That was six years ago.

As time passed, ChocolateChip-UI grew to accommodate new layouts, widgets and support for Android and Windows Phone, and could switch out to use jQuery. And then we made jQuery the default. So many changes…

Recently I was thinking about where to take ChocolateChip-UI. It seemed like it had everything it needed. I went and got some specialty chocolates and some good coffee and sat down to brood. I thought about the difference between Backbone and Angular. Backbone at least had models, where as Angular does not. Because of that, Angular has to run constant polls to compare the state of the raw JavaScript objects. The more you use Angular’s data binding, the more polls you have going and everything starts slowing down, especially on mobile.

In a system with models, it’s the model’s responsibility to inform the system when its data is modified. The system does not need to be running polls to observe the model. It should provide encapsulation and abstraction, protecting data from accidental modification by the system/developer. And so, I began tinkering until I had a model. I created some uses for it, fine tuned it, added some more features, etc. It was an object factory that returned a new model instance without having to use the “new” keyword.

I was pretty happy that ChocolateChip-UI would now have a model, but that got me to thinking – maybe ChocolateChip-UI could use a controller module too. So I looked at how the competition was dealing with controller behavior. And, in the end, I decided to take a completely different approach. I was creating a framework for mobile apps. These have unique challenges because they are mobile. So decided to base this work around the concept of mediators. These sit in the middle of an app’s interactions, like this image:

mediator

I used ChocolateChip-UI pubsub methods as the basis for my mediator module. But mediators have a number of unique features. You can control how many times a mediator can run or when it can run. Then I went back to my model code and updated it so that a model would automatically notify the mediator layer that it had changed. Like the model, this was also an object factory reusing the same pattern.

So now I had a model-controller for ChocolateChip-UI. I had always thought of ChocolateChip-UI as just a view. But it was a very passive and disconnected view because it had nothing built into it to enable working with other MVC frameworks. This meant that to use these required various workaround. It was not optimal, but it worked. I started thinking that maybe I could create a view module in the same way that I had create the model and controller modules. My idea was to enable a more component like pattern. I popped out the template parser from ChocolateChip-UI and put it into a new object factory. The object that this created knew about an element that it was associated with. This would be the container for any template rendering. It would automatically parse the element’s child nodes to extract a template. Or you could define a template in the view’s initializer. And you could define events in the view. And finally, you could bind a view to a model.

In the background the code would generate a mediator that would listen for any changes to the bound model. When a change would occur, it would update the rendered view.

So, I now had a model view controller framework. They had no dependency on ChocolateChip-UI. At the moment they were running on top of jQuery. While I was creating these modules, I kept comparing functions to mechanical ones. So, when I was done I realized I had something totally different from ChocolateChip-UI. It was time for a name change. I thought about vehicle names, but in the end I settled on TruckJS because trucks are powerful, they can carry heavy loads. You can count on trucks.

I then though I’d give a shot at rewriting ChocolateChip using the new patterns I used for TruckJS. But I was going to do one important thing. The new DOM library would be identical in API to jQuery so developers wouldn’t have to learn anything new to use it. In the end I had a DOM library less than half the size of jQuery with 90% of the functionality. But instead of the old Ajax syntax, I used the new Fetch API for remove server interaction. And instead of jQuery’s deferred object implementation, I went with the ECMAScript 6 Promises API. Fetch uses ES6 promises, so this was a perfect fit.

Then I though about routing, so I built a router. Then I added in data formatting and form validation. After that I began porting the widgets over. I wound up rewriting every single widget, changing their behavior to return objects and enabling the form-based widget to work with the new form validation.

TruckJS is a standalone framework without any dependency on other libraries or frameworks. You do not need jQuery, etc. It provides everything you need to build mobile web apps. But, if you really want to use jQuery with Truck, you can. You just have to load jQuery first. When Truck detects jQuery, it switches to using it instead of its own DOM library. I’m not sure why anyone would want to use jQuery. Its bulky and slow on mobile devices. But there’s always those special guys who think something can’t be perfect unless jQuery is loaded.

I’ve put up a site, TruckJS.io, with lots of documentation. And it’s available on Github. If you like ChocolateChip-UI, I think you’re really going to like TruckJS. It gives you the same tradition of great layouts and widgets for creating cross platform mobile web apps.

 

ChocolateChip-UI 3.0.3 Supports jQuery

As of version 3.0.3, ChocolateChip-UI now supports jQuery 2.0.3. We tried earlier versions of 2.x, but there where performance issues that prevented us from offering it as an option. jQuery 2.0.3 has proven to be a good option for mobile Web apps as far as size and speed. As such, going forward we will be supporting jQuery with the latest version of ChocolateChip-UI.

This means you can use other frameworks or plugins with jQuery dependencies and still take advantage of the great features in ChocolateChip-UI for creating cross-platform Web apps for iOS 7, Android Jelly Bean and Windows Phone 8.

For more information about jQuery support in ChocolateChip-UI, please visit ChocolateChip-UI.com and read the documentation for jQuery Support.

iOS 5 Style Switch Control

Recreating the iOS 5 Switch Control with HTML5, CSS3 and a Bit of ECMAScript 5

The final result of this post will run in iOS 5, Safari 5.1, as well as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox and Opera.

Previously I had created a version of the switch control in iOS. With the launch of iOS5 Apple complete updated the look of the switch control. They went with a rounded style, which they also did with most controls in their desktop operating system, Lion.

After playing around with the early betas of iOS 5, I came up with the following reproduction of the new switch control look using just HTML5, CSS3 and some JavaScript for the interactive part. Functionally the switch control is nothing more than a fancier way of presenting a checkbox. So, for our purposes we are going to use a checkbox. Except that we need a couple of tags to wrap the checkbox so we can make it look like the switch control. Fortunately the amount of wrapper is really minimal. If you examine the picture below, you will notice that the switch control really has only two parts: the oblong base and the circular thumb. In our case we need a third part: a checkbox input.

Switch Control

We’re going to make a minor tweak to this default look. You’ll notice that the version above is in English. Actually, only the English version has labels for “On” and “Off”, everyone else uses the international symbols instead. They look like this:

International version of Switch Control

If we ignore the “On/Off” parts and just look at the colored areas we can see that we’re only really dealing with a simple vertical gradient on the thumb and some inset box shadows on the switch control base. This makes our styling really easy. For the “On/Off” parts we don’t need extra markup. You’ll notice that they exist in relation to the switch control’s thumb. We can use CSS pseudo elements on the thumb to create them.

To recreate the iOS5 switch control all we need is the following markup:

	<div class="switch">
		<span class="thumb"></span>
		<input type="checkbox" />
	</div>

Without styling, this gives us a very normal checkbox:

Unstyled switch control

We know what the dimensions need to be by measuring the screenshots, so we can give the switch control base some styling:

	.switch {
		height: 28px;
		width: 77px;
		border: 1px solid #979797;
		border-radius: 20px;
		overflow: hidden;
	}

This will give us the following:

Switch control with rounded border

It looks kind of funny with the checkboxes. We don’t need to see them. We will be setting their checked state with JavaScript later on anyway. So for now we can hide them:

	.switch input[type=checkbox] {
		display: none;
	}

Now let’s add some color. How to re-create that gray shadow area? We’ll use a series of inset box shadows. Like gradients, you can define multiple box shadows on an element. These stack up like layers, the last one being the bottom-most and the first being the top-most. We need to create a sizable gray choke inside the switch base, so we’ll use a box shadow with four values instead of three to create that effect:

	box-shadow: inset 0 12px 3px 2px rgba(232, 232, 232, 0.5);

To this we’ll add a second inset box shadow to create a darker shadow along the top inside of the switch control:

	box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px #BABABA, inset 0 12px 3px 2px rgba(232, 232, 232, 0.5);

Switch control with gray box shadow

Here’s the complete CSS definition for the switch control:

	.switch {
		height: 28px;
		width: 77px;
		border: 1px solid #979797;
		border-radius: 20px;
		margin-top: -5px;
		box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px #BABABA, inset 0 12px 3px 2px rgba(232, 232, 232, 0.5);
		cursor: pointer;
		overflow: hidden;
	}

Now for a tricky part. This gray inset box shadow is for the off state. How do we implement the bluish on state? Well, first of all we need to decide how to represent the states in markup. We’ll do this by added a class of “on” to the switch control base. That means that the base will have a class of “switch on” for when it’s flipped on and just “switch” when it’s off. We can use a pseudo element on the switch base to create the blue state and position it in view or out of view based on the presence of the “on” class. Of course we’re going to need a little JavaScript to set and remove the “on” class when the user clicks. So, here’s the CSS for the on state. We create an empty text node and give it the height we need to match the base. We don’t give it a width just yet since that will get set when the switch has the “on” class. We give it a bluish background color and inset box shadow. The absolute positioning is so that when it’s show, it doesn’t push the thumb out of the switch but instead sits independently inside the switch.

	.switch::before {
		content: "";
		display: block;
		height: 28px;
		width: 0px;
		position: absolute;
		border-radius: 20px;
		box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px #0063B7, inset 0 12px 3px 2px rgba(0, 127, 234, 0.5);
		background-color: #64B1F2;
	}

To show the “on” state we just need to give the blue pseudo element the same width as the base:

	.switch.on::before {
		width: 77px;
	}

If we add the “on” class to one of our switches, we can see how the on state looks:

	<div class="switch on">
		<span class="thumb"></span>
		
	</div>

Switch control with 'on' state

That’s all we need for the switch control’s base. Now let’s tackle the thumb. We’ll make the span a block element with dimensions, set its positioning to relative so we can give it a higher z-index than the other elements in the switch control, specifically, the blue on state pseudo element. Next up: border, box shadow and gradient, very straightforward. And finally, because we want to have the thumb slide back and forth when the switch is clicked, we need to enable a CSS transition and give it a default translate value. Note: you will need to add an appropriate vendor prefix for the gradient, transition and transform.

	.switch > .thumb {
		display: block;
		width: 26px;
		height: 26px;
		position: relative;
		top: 0;
		z-index: 3;
		border: solid 1px #919191;
		border-radius: 28px;
		box-shadow: inset 0 2px 1px white, inset 0 -2px 1px white;
		background-color: #CECECE;
		background-image: linear-gradient(top, #CECECE, #FBFBFB);
		transition: all 0.125s ease-in-out;
		transform: translate3d(0,0,0);
	}

This gives us the following:

Switch control with thumb

As you can see, all thumbs are in the same place. We need to define a translate value for their “On” state:

	.switch.on > .thumb {
		-webkit-transform: translate3d(49px,0,0);
		-o-transform: translateX(49px);
		-moz-transform: translateX(49px);
	}

Which gives us:

Switch control thumb in 'on' state

Now the only thing left is to create the “on/off” indicators. We’ll start with the “on” one. It’s really quite simple. a vertical stripe with a border around it. We’ll create a pseudo element that has an empty text node, style it and position it beside the thumb. Here’s the CSS:

	.switch > .thumb::before {
		content: "";
		display: block;
		height: 14px;
		width: 2px;
		background-color: white;
		box-shadow: 0px -1px 1px #666;
		border: none;
		position: absolute;
		top: 6px;
		left: -24px;
	}

Switch control with 'on' state indicator

And for the “off” indicator, we create a pseudo element with an empty text node styles as a circle positioned to the right of the thumb:

	.switch > .thumb::after {
		content: "";
		display: block;
		height: 10px;
		width: 10px;
		border-radius: 10px;
		border: solid 2px #777;
		position: absolute;
		right: -32px;
		top: 6px;
	}

Switch control with 'off' state indicator

Now we have a fully styled switch control with minimal markup. We just need to add some interactivity. For that we’ll have to write some JavaScript. Since this is a self-contained example, I’m going to use the very latest version of ECMAScript 5. This gives me an easy way to get DOM elements and toggle classes on elements. If you want to reuse this you’ll need to switch those parts out for whatever methods your chosen JavaScript library provides.

So, first up I’m going to wrap everything up in an anonymous function:

	(function() {
	
	})();

Next I need a convenience method to get a collection of nodes and turn it into an array so I can iterate over it. I use call slice method of the Array object and pass in the results of querySelectorAll. That will convert the node collection into an array:

	(function() {
		var $$ = function(selector) {
			return Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));
		}
	})();

Now I want to define an event that executes when the DOM is fully loaded:

	(function() {
		var $$ = function(selector) {
			return Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));
		}
		document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
		
		}, false);
	})();

After getting an array of all switch controls in the document, we iterate through them with the **forEach** method and bind a click event listener. The listener will execute a function that toggles the class “on”. ECMAScript 5 introduces a new token collection for classes called classList. This has several useful functions: add, remove, contains and toggle. To accomplish these methods with straight JavaScript you would need to use regular expressions. Instead I can just use **Element.classList.toggle(“on”)** to add and remove the class when the user clicks:

	(function() {
		var $$ = function(selector) {
			return Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));
		}
		document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
			$$(".switch").forEach(function(switchControl) {
				switchControl.addEventListener("click", function toggleSwitch() {
					switchControl.classList.toggle("on");
				}, false);
			});
		}, false);
	})();

With the above JavaScript in our document, when the user clicks a switch control, the class “on” will be added to or removed from the switch, causing its thumb to slide to the left or right accordingly. This handily takes care of our visual requirements for the functionality of the switch control. However, we do need to manage the checked state of the checkbox. The first thing we’ll do is make sure any switch controls that had the class “on” during page load have their checkboxes set to chekced. Since the checkbox is the last element in the switch control div, we can reference it that way:

	(function() {
		var $$ = function(selector) {
			return Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));
		}
		document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
			if (switchControl.classList.contains("on")) {
				switchControl.lastElementChild.checked = true;
			}		
			$$(".switch").forEach(function(switchControl) {
				switchControl.addEventListener("click", function toggleSwitch() {
					switchControl.classList.toggle("on");
				}, false);
			});
		}, false);
	})();

Next we need to update a switch controls checkbox when the switch control itself is clicked. We just need to again get a reference to the checkbox and set its clicked state to the opposite of what it was when the user clicked:

	(function() {
		var $$ = function(selector) {
			return Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));
		}
		document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
			var checkbox;
			if (switchControl.classList.contains("on")) {
				switchControl.lastElementChild.checked = true;
			}		
			$$(".switch").forEach(function(switchControl) {
				switchControl.addEventListener("click", function toggleSwitch() {
					checkbox = switchControl.lastElementChild;
					checkbox.checked = !checkbox.checked;
					switchControl.classList.toggle("on");
				}, false);
			});
		}, false);
	})();

And that’s all you need to make the switch controls work. The final example has some extra JavaScript to output some text when the user flips a switch on to show them working. For Safari, Chrome and Opera, I use innerText to set the text value, but Firefox uses textContent. So the code has to deal with those differences.

You can try the working example. If you want the code, just save that page to your desktop. Everything is self-contained in the page.

ChocolateChip-UI for Zepto

I’ve ported ChocolateChip-UI to the JavaScript micro framework Zepto. Created by Thomas Fuchs of Scriptaculous fame, Zepto is a small JavaScript library for mobile devices that replicates the functions of jQuery. If you use jQuery but want to do mobile development and are disappointed with jQuery mobile’s size and performance, Zepto may be your solution. Zepto has a very small footprint and performs well on mobile devices. But Zepto provides only the equivalent of jQuery itself. If you need something to help you get your interface and widgets together, ChocolateChip-UI with Zepto provides a complete solution.

Although Zepto’s methods are the same as jQuery’s, it is not a clone of jQuery. The way it works internally is quite different. Yet it literally only took me a few hours to port the jQuery version of ChocolateChip-UI to Zepto. One major difference is that Zepto’s data method stores strings on a node using HTML5’s data attribute, whereas jQuery’s data method uses a sophisticated caching system to store any kind of data. However, on mobile browsers, HTML5 offers local storage and client side database for data persistence so this isn’t that big of a limitation. It does require more work (coding) on your part to accomplish the same thing that jQuery’s data method provides.

Check out .

Performance and size-wise, ChocolateChip-UI with Zepto is equivalent to ChocolateChip-UI with ChocolateChip. So, it’s really just up to a matter of personal preferences. If you like the coding conventions that jQuery demands, then go with Zepto. If you’d prefer more freedom to use normal JavaScript and want to break out of the jQuery mold, go with ChocolateChip.